English Language and Literature homework help. Need an research paper on develop an analysis on us modes of transportaation and security. Needs to be 2 pages. Please no plagiarism. U.S. Modes of Transportation and Security U.S. Modes of Transportation The United s has several modes of transportation. According to Dr. Slack et al, the three basic types of transportation modes are through land, water and air (Slack, Rodrigue, & Comotois, n.d.). Land transportation for both passenger and freight would include road, rail and pipelines. Buses, subways and light and heavy rail are forms of mass transportation in the U.S.After the September 11 terrorist attack, security measures for all transportation modes were strengthened. Whereas transportation security used to be under several federal agencies before the 9/11 attack, it is now under the Department of Homeland Security (Dillingham, 2003). With regards to land transportation such as the train system or mass transport system, preparedness for emergency situations was increased through training and holding of emergency drills (Dillingham, 2003). Securing the mass transport system via land is more challenging than securing the transport modes through water and air. The high ridership, the open access features, the high costs of security improvements, vastness of the urban area, the existence of multiple access points and the problem of coordination with the various stakeholders make this type of transportation mode difficult to secure (Guerrero, 2002). Despite these challenges, the agencies involved in mass transport have come up with safety and security measures namely: “1) vulnerability assessments. 2) fast-track security improvements. 3) immediate, inexpensive security improvements. 4) intensified security presence. 5) increased emergency drills. 6) revised emergency plans. and 7) additional training on anti-terrorism” (Guerrero, 2002). Specifically, there will be increased surveillance, more cameras, a mobile security team that handles random checking of passengers and bags, more police and bomb-sniffing canines (Levitz, 2010).With regards to water transport, security in ports was increased. There will be police officers from the port authority and explosives detection canine handlers who will board the ferry. Passenger and cargo screening is also implemented.Aviation security is implemented by screening the passengers and the property in the plane (Dillingham, 2003). Federal passenger screeners check all bags with the use of explosive detection system. Other alternative means for screening passengers and baggage were employed like canine teams, hand searches and passenger-bag matching. Federal air marshals are also deployed. Furthermore, reinforced cockpit doors in aircrafts were required to be installed. In the airports, access to secure areas is limited. Security in the areas where the air traffic control computer systems and facilities is located is now heightened.Aside from the adequacy and the efficiency of the transportation modes in the US, security is given emphasis now more than ever. The security of the different transportation modes of the US is of utmost importance to the government especially after the 9/11 attack. Government agencies work hand in hand to ensure the safety and security of the people who use these various modes. The threat of terrorism is real. thus, the issue of transportation security has assumed great urgency today.ReferencesDillingham, G. L. (2003, March 31). Transportation security: Post September 11th initiatives and long-term challenges. Retrieved January 21, 2012, from United States General Accounting Office Web site: http://www.gao.gov/new.items/d03616t.pdfGuerrero, P. (2002, September 18). Mass transit: Challenges in securing transit systems. Retrieved January 22, 2012, from United States General Accounting Office Web Site: http://www.gao.gov/new.items/d021075t.pdfLevitz, J. (2010, March 30). Transit systems reinforce security measures . Retrieved January 22, 2012, from online.wsj.com Web site: http://online.wsj.com/article/SB10001424052702303410404575152204294107816.htmlSlack, B., Rodrigue, J.-P., & Comotois, C. (n.d.). Transportation modes: An overview. Retrieved January 21, 2012, from Department of Global Studies and Geography, Hofstra University Web site: http://people.hofstra.edu/geotrans/eng/ch3en/conc3en/ch3c1en.

English Language and Literature homework help